Monday, 18 December 2017

Vocabulary. Unit 4

Weather: It refers to the state of the atmosphere in a place at a specific time.
Climate: It refers to the state of the atmosphere in a place over a long period of time.
Weather station: The place where it studies the weather and climate.
Axis: It is the point where the Earth rotates.
Orbits: It is the way that follows the Earth in her revolution around the Sun.
Cold zone: It is the zone whithin the polar circle. In this area, the temperatures are always cold.
Latitude: It consists that the areas near the Equator rain more than the other areas.
Altitude:It consists that it rains more in high areas than in low areas.
Inland climates: It is a climate which is much hotter in summer and much colder in winter.
Humidity: It is amount of water vapor in the air.
Anticyclones: It is areas with a high pressure.
Depressions: It is areas with a low pressure.
Anticlockwise: It is the opposite sense to the clock wise.
Average temperature: It is the average of the temperatures in an area.
Maximum temperature: It is the highest temperature of an area.
Minimum temperature: It is the lowest temperature in an area.
Jet Stream: It is a wind that blows from east to west and it is found in the temperate zones.
Global wind patterns: It is the group of every winds on the Earth.
Doldrums: It is a place where the wind don't blow
Sea breeze: It is a type of synoptic winds which is blowing from the sea towards the land by day.
Rotation: It is when the Earth spins on a imaginary straight line called axis.
Revolution around the Sun: It is the movement of the Earth around the Sun. That produces the year and the seasons.
Equinoxes: It is the moment that mark the beginning of Autumn and spring
Solstices: It is the moment that mark the beginning of winter and summer.
Thermometer: It is the tool necessary to measured the temperature.
Hot zone:It is the zone where the Sun's rays reach the earth in perpendicular angle all year round, so temperatures are always high.
Temperate zone: It is the zone between the tropics and polar circle. In this area the temperatures are temperate.
Precipitation:It is droplets that fall on the Earth's surface.
Convectional rain: This is a type of rainfall characteristic of hot climates.
Orographic/ Relief rain: This is a type of rainfall characteristic of mountains regions.
Frontal rain: This is a type of rainfall takes place at the boundary, between a mass of warm air and a mass of cold air.
Front: It is the boundary between different air masses.
Atmospheric pressure: It is the force exerted at a specific point on the Earth´s surface by the weight of the air above it.
Prevailing winds: These winds always blow in the same direction.
Periodic winds: These winds change direction seasonally.
Seasons:Different moments around the year when temperatures and rainfalls change. It are produced with the orbit of the Earth.
Synoptic winds: These winds change daily.
Trade wind: These are winds influenced by the surrounding geography.
Water vapor: It is the water evaporated.
Land breeze: It is a type of breeze given in the land.

Friday, 15 December 2017

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation One way to  transfer of heat from the equator to the poles would be to have a single circulation cell that was upward in the tropics, poleward aloft, downward at the poles, and equatorward at the surface. This is the single-cell circulation model first proposed by Hadley in the 1700’s.

Since the earth rotates, the axis is tilted, and there is more land mass in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere, the actual global pattern is much more complicated. Instead of a single-cell circulation the global circulation model consists of three cells for both N and S hemispheres. These three cells are the tropical cell (also called a Hadley cell), the midlatitude cell and the polar cell.
Surface Features of the Global Atmospheric Circulation System
Main wind belts:
Because the Coriolis force act to the right of the flow (in the Northern Hemisphere), the flow around the 3-cells is deflected. This gives rise to the three main wind belts in each hemisphere at the surface:
· The easterly trade winds in the tropics
· The prevailing westerlies
· The polar easterlies
Doldrums, ITCZ: The doldrums are the region near the equator where the trade winds from each hemisphere meet. This is also where you find the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). It is characterized by hot, humid weather with light winds, major tropical rain forests found in this zone. Migrates north in January and south in July.
Horse latitudes:The horse latitudes are the region between the trade winds and the prevailing westerlies. In this region the winds are often light or calm, and were so-named because ships would often half to throw their horses overboard due to lack of feed and water.
Polar font:The polar front lies between the polar easterlies and the prevailing westerlies.
Pressure belts:
The three-cell circulation model would have associated with it the following pressure belts:
· Equatorial low – A belt of low pressure associated with the rising air in the ITCZ. (The rising of warm air heated at the Equator causes an area of low pressure called Equatorial Low. As the air rises, creates clouds and precipitation.)
· Subtropical high – A belt of high pressure associated with the sinking air of the horse latitudes. (At the subtropics the air cools and descends creating areas of high pressure with clear skies and little precipitation, called the Subtropical High. The descending air is warm and dry, and produces deserts in these regions.)
· Subpolar low – A belt of low pressure associated with the polar front.
· Polar high – A high pressure associated with the cold, dense air of the polar regions.To learn more.
  1. What is the main idea in this text?
  2. Explain the Atmospheric circulation.
  3. What number of the atmospheric cells are in the Earth ? Explain

Tuesday, 12 December 2017

Types of rainfall

There are three common types of rainfall, all of which occur in Spain. All have the common theme of air being forced to rise.
As air rises it cools it cannot hold as much moisture as it could when it was warmer. Eventually the rising air reaches a point where it is 100% saturated, in other words it cannot hold any more water. This is called dew point, and it is above this point that condensation occurs.
Condensation is the process by which the water vapour (a gas) held in the air is turned back into water droplets (a liquid), which fall as rain.
Very common in areas where the ground is heated by the hot sun, such as the Tropics. This is why those areas experience heavy rainfalls most afternoons. The United Kingdom does experience some convectional rainfall during the summer, particularly in the South East of the country.
Convectional rainfall occurs when:
  • The surface of the earth is heated by the sun.
  • The warm surface heats the air above it. Hot air always rises so this newly heated air does so.
  • As it rises the air-cools and begins to condensate.
  • Further rising and cooling causes a large amount of condensation to occur and rain is formed.
Convection tends to produce towering cumulo-nimbus clouds, which produce heavy rain and possible thunder and lightning.

The United Kingdom experiences a lot of frontal rainfall, as it is associated with the movement of depressions over the country, which are described in more detail elsewhere in this topic.
Frontal rainfall occurs when:
  • Two air masses meet, one a warm air mass and one a cold air mass.
  • The lighter, less dense, warm air is forced to rise over the denser, cold air.
  • This causes the warm air to cool and begin to condense.
  • As the warm air is forced to rise further condensation occurs and rain is formed.
  • Frontal rain produces a variety of clouds, which bring moderate to heavy rainfall.

This is also called orographic rainfall, which is very common in the United Kingdom, especially on the West coast since the prevailing weather comes from that direction.
Relief Rainfall occurs when:
  • The prevailing winds pick up moisture from the sea as they travel across it, making the air moist.
  • The moist air reaches the coast and is forced to rise over mountains and hills.
  • This forces the air to cool and condense, forming clouds.
  • The air continues to be forced over the mountains and so it drops its moisture as relief rain.
  • Once over the top of the mountain the air will usually drop down the other side, warming as it does so. This means it has a greater ability to carry water moisture and so there is little rain on the far side of the mountain. This area is called the rain shadow. ( link to this material)
Activity: Read the texts. Prepare these materials with your words to explain the different three types of rainfall that there are.  You can use this other link. Send me the ideas

Monday, 11 December 2017

Environmental Problems´ Investigation: How to Save the Polar Bear?

We will go to make a Power Point about one  environmental problems: How we can to save the Polar Bear. You can look for ideas about the Enviromental Problems   in  your book, pag 64-65 or in these links:

 To know more about the Polar Bear use this link or  this.
 To know more about Polar bear and Climate Change.

Use the Drive to make these presentations. Work in groups of 2 people. 
Every presentation have different points:
  • Global Environmental problems, 
  • Polar Ecosystem, 
  • How affect the environmental problems to the Polar bear, 
  • Solutions to save the  Polar Bear, ....
Every presentation need use nice pictures to show the problems and impress our thoughts.

You send me your work.  Some groups  show us your presentation in class.

Wednesday, 29 November 2017

Vocabulary Unit 4. Weather and climate

Unit 4

  • Weather
  • Climate
  • Meteorology
  • Cold zone
  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Inland climates
  • Humidity
  • Anticyclones
  • Depressions
  • Anticlockwise
  • Average temperature
  • Maximum temperature
  • Minimum temperature
  • Anemometer
  • Global warming
  • Droughts
  • Thermometer
  • Hot zone
  • Temperate zone
  • Precipitation
  • Convectional rain
  • Orographic / relief rain
  • Frontal rain
  • Front
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Prevailing winds
  • Season
  • Trade wind
  • Water vapour
  • Greenhouse efect
  • Fossil fuels
  • Climate change
  • Flooding
    You need to know these words and your meanings for the next exam. I´m going to ask you.

    The atmosphere

    We explore about the atmosphere. You can use your book on page 54-56, or this page and you talk with James about that.

    We make the different activities in these points:

    Tuesday, 28 November 2017

    Wednesday, 22 November 2017


    Investigating about the ocean

    With this page and your book, we are going to investigate about the ocean.

    You have to do these activities:
    1. Why is the ocean salty
    2. What causes Waves?
    3. What causes Tides?
    4. What is a Tsunami?
    5. What are Deepest depth?

    Monday, 20 November 2017

    Learn about Tides, Ocean Currents and Waves

    Vocabulary Unit 3

    • Water Cycle : It is the process when the water changes its physical state.
    • Fresh water : It is the water found in rivers, lakes, glaciers, groundwater and at the poles.
    • Groundwater : It is the water run and is scored under the ground.
    • Flow : It is the amount of water it carries
    • Basin : It is the area occupied by a river and its tributaries.
    • Tributaries : It is smaller rivers flowing into a large river.
    • Source : It is the place of a river starts.
    • Glaciers : They are masses of ice created by the accumulation of snow.
    • Lakes : They are permanent masses of water which have accumulated inland.
    • Wadis : They are basins in the desert.
    • Rivers : They are permanent currents of water
    • Canals : It is build by human beings, and used to transport water.
    • Reservoirs : They are artificial lakes to store water.
    • Water supply : It is the water in reservoirs and is offered to people and industries.
    • Dams : They are build of human beings used to produce electricity.
    • Hydroelectric power station : It is a station used to produced electricity through the water.
    • Salinity : It is the amount of salt with containing the oceans and seas.
    • Warm current : These currents are produced when the temperature of a current is higher than the water around it.
    • Cold current : These currents are produced when the temperature of a current is colder than the water around it.
    • Tides : They are the diary rise and fall of the water level. They are caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun.
    • Waves : They are undulations of the surface of the water produced by wind.
    • High tide : This tide is produced when rise the level of sea.
    • Low tide : This tide is produced when falls the level of sea.
    • Lagoons : It is smaller lakes.
    • Inland seas : It is a saltwater lake.
    • Ocean currents : They are large masses of water, similar to rivers, which circulate through oceans.
    • Aquifers : It is forms when the water can´t pass through the impermeable rocks
    • Springs : It is forms when groundwater finds a way to the surface. They can be cold or hold water.
    • Drinking water : It is the water you can drink. Groundwater is valuable because there are drinking water.
    • Icebergs : It is a floating mass of ice.
    • Consumption : It is the fresh water which use the human being for life. It is only 0.014%.
    • Droughts : It is shortage of water.
    • Floods : It is excess of water
    • Water Pollution : It is large amount of materials are added to a body of water.
    • Acid rain: It contains harmful chemicals such as sulfur and nitrogen. These chemicals are released into the atmosphere as gases.

    Tuesday, 14 November 2017

    The course of a river

    • Explain the difference between the upper course, middle course and lower course of a river.
    •  Where is the place to erosión? , and to the deposition of sediments?
    • What types of reliefs are possible in these areas? Look  for information here and in your book, page 42
    Complete the table:

    Course of a river
    Parts Where? Main features



    Link to investigate with James

    Tuesday, 7 November 2017

    How does rain form and what is the water cycle?

    Water Cycle

    Explain to James  how is the Water Cycle.

     Click here to leard more

    Vocabulary Unit 3. Water


  • Water Cycle
  • Fresh water
  • Groundwater
  • Flow
  • Basin
  • Tributary
  • Source
  • Glacier
  • Lake
  • River
  • Canal
  • Reservoir
  • Dam
  • Hidroelectric power station
  • Salinity
  • Warm current
  • Cold current
  • Tide
  • Wave
  • High tide
  • Low tide
  • Lagoon
  • Inland sea
  • Ocean current
  • Aquifer
  • Spring
  • Drinking water
  • Iceberg
  • Drought
  • Flood
  • Water Pollution
  • Acid rain
  • Homework:
    • You have to look for the meaning of these words and write them in english;
    You need to know these words and your meanings for the next exam. I´m going to ask you.

    Monday, 6 November 2017

    The Water Cycle


    • Explain how relief is modified. What are the main external agents?
    • Do you think more than one external agent can modify relief at the same time? How?

    Monday, 23 October 2017

    Vocabulary Unit 2

    • Alluvial plain: It is a flat, fertile area where the river deposits sediment.
    • Archipelago: It is a group of islands.
    • Basin: It is natural depression, or low areas of land. Some are below sea level.
    • Bay: It is a small gulf.
    • Beach: It is a flat coastal area.
    • Canyon: It is a deep channel with steep walls.
    • Cape: It is a part of the coast which extends into the sea.
    • Cliff: They are steep rock formations in high coastal areas.
    • Continental Drift: It is a new theory. There was only continent, which broke up millions of years ago. (Pangaea).
    • Continental shelf: It is a place near coastlines. These shelves are vast plateaus which reach of 150 metres.
    • Continental slope: It is a place to lead down to the deeper part of oceans.
    • Core: It is the deepest layer of the Earth. The core is part solid and part liquid.
    • Crater: It is the upper of volcano when magma comes out.
    • Crust: It is the surface layer of the Earth. It is a thin, solid layer made of rock.
    • Delta: It is a triangular area at the mouth of a river.
    • Earthquake:It is caused by plate tectonics. When two plates crash, there is a release of energy that makes the ground vibrate. This vibration is an earthquake.
    • Erosion: It is the fragmentation and dissolution of rocks, soil and mud, which is transported by wind or water.
    • Estuary: It is the part of a river where it meets the sea.
    • Fault: They are blocks rise or sink.
    • Fluvial erosion: the rivers erode materials, and create deep valleys and canyons.
    • Fold: They are created when the Earth’s surface undulates where plates collide.
    • Gulf: It is a large area of a sea or ocean partially enclosed by land.
    • Island: It is an area of land surrounded by water on all sides.
    • Isthmus: It connects a peninsula to a continent.
    • Lava: It is magma comes out of a volcano.
    • Lower course: It is down part the river.
    • Lower mantle: It is the intermediate layer. It has a depth of 700 to 3,000 km.
    • Magma: It is molten rock. It is a very hot material that comes out when a volcano is an opening.
    • Mantle: It is the intermediate layer of the Earth. This layer is almost 85% of the Earth’s volume.
    • Marine Erosion: waves and currents wear away coasts and create cliffs. The water transports the sediment and deposits it. It forms beaches.
    • Middle course:It is a middle part the river.
    • Mountain: They are high landforms with steep sides.
    • Mountain range: It is a group of mountains.
    • Ocean Ridge: It is a large mountain range in the ocean floor .
    • Ocean Trench: They are large, deep depressions in the ocean floor.
    • Peninsula: It is an area of land surrounded by water on all sides except one.
    • Pipe: It is a part of volcano through the magma rises.
    • Plain: They are low, flat areas of land.
    • Plateau: They are large, raised plains.
    • Sediment: They are the erosion’s materials which rests on a basin.
    • Solution: water dissolves some rocks, such as limestone, producing unusual caves and landscapes.
    • Tectonic Plate: They are the different plates the Earth’s crust. It is a theory
    • Tsunami: It is an earthquake on the ocean floor.
    • Upper course: It is  the high part in  a river.
    • Upper mantle: this is a  layer of the Earth that  has a depth of 70 to 700 km. It is below the crust.
    • Valley:It is an area of low land between mountains.
    • Volcano:It is an opening in the surface of the Earth through which very hot material comes out.
    • Waterfall: It is a section of a river where the water falls vertically.

    Wednesday, 18 October 2017

    Eart 100 million Years from now

    Practicing maps

    To learn physical map we need practice

    How Noth America go its shape

    Continents, countries, and even mountain ranges didn't always look the way they look now. Millions of years ago, every continent had a different shape. The force that changes continents and mountains is called tectonics, and each continent sits on a tectonic plate.

    Read pages 28 and 29 in the textbook, and answer the questions.
    Also think about why tectonic plates, volcanoes, and earthquakes are connected. link

    After watching the video, answer:
    • What happens when one plate goes underneath another? 
    • What did the continents look like  millions of years ago? 
    • What does "rift" mean? 
    • Name the different tectonic plates in this region

    Wednesday, 11 October 2017

    The 15 most amazing landforms

    Shaped and sculpted over millions of years, these stunning landscapes and rock formations hold invaluable clues to Earth's past and future ( link to the BBC page)

    Vocabulary Unit 2

    Unit 2
    • Alluvial plain
    • Archipelago
    • Basin
    • Bay
    • Canyon
    • Cape
    • Cliff
    • Continental Drift
    • Continental shelf
    • Continental slope
    • Core
    • Crater
    • Crust
    • Delta
    • Earthquake
    • Erosion
    • Estuary
    • Fault
    • Fluvial erosión
    • Fold
    • Gulf
    • Island
    • Istmus
    • Lava
    • Lower course
    • Lower mantle
    • Magma
    • Mantle
    • Marine Erosion
    • Middle course
    • Mountain
    • Mountain range
    • Ocean Ridge
    • Ocean Trench
    • Peninsula
    • Pipe
    • Plain
    • Plateau
    • Sediment
    • Solution
    • Tectonic Plate
    • Tsunamic
    • Upper course
    • Upper mantle
    • Valley
    • Volcano
    • Waterfall
    • You have to look for the meaning of these words and write in english about them ;
    You need to know these words and your meanings for the next exam. I´m going to ask you.

    Describing landscapes

    Describe  to James these landscapes using the words that you know.
    After that, send me a e-mail with the writing description.

    Ver DELTA DEL EBRO ACCESIBLE en un mapa más grande

    Wednesday, 4 October 2017

    Times Zones

    Use your book, page 21

    • How many time zones  is the Earth divided into?
    • Why are the Canary islands one hour behind the rest of Spain?
    • If you get to Sydney  at 0:00 hours (local time) What time would it  be  in Spain?
    • You take a flight from Madrid at 10 am, and arive in New York eight hours later. What time do you arrive? 
    • Make the activity 2 in your book

     You need use this link to know the correct hours in every place.